Stage 1 GWASs, genotyping, and imputation
AA Alexessander Couto Alves NS N. Maneka G. De Silva VK Ville Karhunen US Ulla Sovio SD Shikta Das HT H. Rob Taal NW Nicole M. Warrington AL Alexandra M. Lewin MK Marika Kaakinen DC Diana L. Cousminer ET Elisabeth Thiering NT Nicholas J. Timpson TB Tom A. Bond EL Estelle Lowry CB Christopher D. Brown XE Xavier Estivill VL Virpi Lindi JB Jonathan P. Bradfield FG Frank Geller DS Doug Speed LC Lachlan J. M. Coin ML Marie Loh SB Sheila J. Barton LB Lawrence J. Beilin HB Hans Bisgaard KB Klaus Bønnelykke RA Rohia Alili IH Ida J. Hatoum KS Katharina Schramm RC Rufus Cartwright MC Marie-Aline Charles VS Vincenzo Salerno KC Karine Clément AC Annique A. J. Claringbould CD Cornelia M. van Duijn EM Elena Moltchanova JE Johan G. Eriksson CE Cathy Elks BF Bjarke Feenstra CF Claudia Flexeder SF Stephen Franks TF Timothy M. Frayling RF Rachel M. Freathy PE Paul Elliott EW Elisabeth Widén HH Hakon Hakonarson AH Andrew T. Hattersley AR Alina Rodriguez MB Marco Banterle JH Joachim Heinrich BH Barbara Heude JH John W. Holloway AH Albert Hofman EH Elina Hyppönen HI Hazel Inskip LK Lee M. Kaplan AH Asa K. Hedman EL Esa Läärä HP Holger Prokisch HG Harald Grallert TL Timo A. Lakka DL Debbie A. Lawlor MM Mads Melbye TA Tarunveer S. Ahluwalia MM Marcella Marinelli IM Iona Y. Millwood LP Lyle J. Palmer CP Craig E. Pennell JP John R. Perry SR Susan M. Ring MS Markku J. Savolainen FR Fernando Rivadeneira MS Marie Standl JS Jordi Sunyer CT Carla M. T. Tiesler AU Andre G. Uitterlinden WS William Schierding JO Justin M. O’Sullivan IP Inga Prokopenko KH Karl-Heinz Herzig GS George Davey Smith PO Paul O'Reilly JF Janine F. Felix JB Jessica L. Buxton AB Alexandra I. F. Blakemore KO Ken K. Ong VJ Vincent W. V. Jaddoe SG Struan F. A. Grant  SS Sylvain Sebert  MM Mark I. McCarthy  MJ Marjo-Riitta Järvelin

Stage 1 genome-wide association analyses included up to 7215 children of European descent from five studies (four studies for each early growth trait) that had growth data and genome-wide data. These included the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (Finland), Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966; Finland), Lifestyle-Immune System–Allergy Study (LISA; Germany), The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort Study (Raine, Australia), and Generation R (The Netherlands) (figs. S2 and S3). Informed consent was obtained from all study participants (or parental consent, as appropriate), and the local ethics committees as appropriate approved all study protocols. Study characteristics, genotyping platform, imputation and association test software used, as well as sample and genotyping and imputation quality control steps in each stage 1 study are given in table S1. Stage 1 consisted of a GWAS based on ~2.5 million directly genotyped or imputed SNPs. Imputation of nongenotyped SNPs was undertaken either with MACH or with IMPUTE and were imputed to HapMap phase 2 CEU reference panel after excluding genotyped SNPs with a MAF of <1%, call rate of at least ≥95%, and a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) P value cutoff as given in table S1.

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