The zinc white binding medium model system LO/Zn was prepared by grinding 250 mg zinc sorbate (ZnSo) together with cold-pressed untreated 1750 mg of LO (Kremer Pigmente) with mortar and pestle. ZnSo was synthesized as described previously (5). A portion of the resulting paste was spread onto glass slides with a drawdown bar to a wet thickness of 90 μm (or 15 μm for transmission measurements) and cured overnight in an air-circulated oven at 150°C. A series of LO/Zn ionomers with decreasing neutralization were prepared in a similar fashion using mixtures of zinc sorbate and sorbic acid in LO to achieve neutralization levels of 0, 17, 33, 50, 67, 83, and 100% (excluding the COOH groups formed as a result of LO oxidation), while the total sorbate/sorbic acid concentration was kept constant.

ZnPa was synthesized by adding a solution of either 180 or 300 mg Zn(NO3)2·6H2O in 2 ml of demineralized water to a solution of 300 mg of palmitic acid (HPa) and 0.25 ml of triethylamine in 10 ml of demineralized water at 85°C, corresponding to a Zn/HPa ratio in the mixture of 1:1.93 and 1:1.16, respectively. After stirring for 10 min, the precipitated white product was washed with a sequence of demineralized water, ethanol, and acetone on a Büchner funnel. While no impurities were detected with ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and powder x-ray diffraction in ZnPa prepared with 180 mg zinc nitrate, the excess of Zn2+ ions in the alkaline reaction mixture with 300 mg zinc nitrate resulted in the coprecipitation of an additional crystalline phase identified as Zn5(OH)8(Pa)2 with powder x-ray diffraction (fig. S6) (35).

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