The thermal properties of the membranes were characterized using a conductive heat source with a contact area of 4 mm by 4 mm via conductive thermal paste. IR thermographs were taken using an IR camera (T630sc from FLIR). Steady state was reached before the data were recorded at room temperature (21°C). The thermal conductivity of woods was measured using the laser flash apparatus (LFA), during which an instantaneous laser pulse was used to heat up one side of the sample, and the response of temperature on the other side was recorded by a detector. The thermal conductivity κ of the sample was calculated according to Li et al. (39). Briefly, an instantaneous laser pulse was irradiated on one side of the sample, and the response of temperature on the other side was recorded by an LFA 457 detector (NETZSCH, Burlington, MA) for thermal diffusivity measurement. Differential scanning calorimetry method with a sapphire reference was used to determine the heat capacity. The thermal conductivity k can then be calculated by multiplying the thermal diffusivity and the heat capacity together with the material bulk density (0.13 ± 0.03 g cm−3). The samples were stored at 25°C and 20% humidity for a minimum of 24 hours before measurement.

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