All working solutions were prepared using American Chemical Society–grade chemicals (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) and Milli-Q water (18.2 megohm∙cm) throughout the study, unless otherwise stated. The lignin removal solution contained 2.5 M NaOH and 0.4 M Na2SO3, and the bleaching solution was 2.5 M H2O2. A mixture of 95 weight % (wt %) ethanol, 2 wt % FAS (perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane, C16H19F17O3Si; Sigma-Aldrich), and 3 wt % Milli-Q water (pH adjusted at pH 5.0 with acetic acid) was prepared and used as the silane solution for hydrophobic treatment. The mixture was magnetically stirred for 24 hours for silane hydrolysis. The mechanism of silane treatment can be found in section S1 (50). Commercial hydrophobic membranes (Table 1 and fig. S5) in comparison tests were purchased from Tisch Scientific, North Bend, OH.

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