Before testing the GO-lipid interaction, the lipid vesicles were formed according to a standard protocol. Briefly, 10 mg of 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLPC; Sigma-Aldrich) was dissolved in 40 ml of chloroform. Under a nitrogen atmosphere, the lipid was dried onto the wall of a round-bottom flask by vortexing for 30 min at 25°C and then suspended in 1 ml of Milli-Q water. Lipid vesicles were formed by extruding 10 times through an 800-nm polycarbonate porous membrane (Avanti miniextruder) from the suspension to clarity. All the solvents, excluding the lipid vesicles, were sonicated before use to debubble. The first step in the actual experiment was to flush the QCM chip (Sensor Crystal QSX 301) using only Milli-Q water for at least 30 min, allowing the system to equilibrate. Subsequently, the suspension of lipid vesicles was injected, and the signal of bilayer formation was recorded. After a water rinse for removing any extra unfused vesicles, the GO suspension (20 μg/ml) was then injected in the QCM chambers. There is a linear dependence of frequency and mass change, also known as the Sauerbrey relation: Δm=C1nΔf.

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