For multiple comparisons (qPCR and adhesion assay), one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by a post hoc Newman-Keuls test was used using GraphPad Prism version 5.04 (GraphPad Software, San Diego, CA, USA; www.graphpad.com). The results are presented as the means ± SD, n ≥ 3, unless otherwise stated. P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

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