The model compound OPV used in this work was synthesized via Knoevenagel condensation reaction (fig. S1). The starting reagents, 2,5-dibromobenzene-1,4-dicarbaldehyde and 4-(diphenylamino)benzaldehyde, were purchased from J&K Chemical Ltd. (Beijing, China) and purified by recrystallization. Phenylboronic acid, tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium, potassium tert-butoxide, tetra-butyl ammonium hydroxide, and tosylmethyl isocyanide were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich and used without further treatment. Organic solvents—toluene, dichloromethane, chloroform, tetrahydrofuran, and methanol—were dried and distilled before use.

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