The device behavior was characterized by EIS in the dark at a frequency range of 500 kHz to 100 mHz using a Bio-Logic SP300 potentiostat and a Faraday cage. Completed devices with an FTO/blocking TiO2/mesoporous TiO2/perovskite/spiro-OMeTAD/Au architecture were used for the measurement. Devices were exposed to forward bias potentials from 0 to 1.1 V in steps of 0.05 V on which a sinusoidal perturbation of 20 mV was superimposed. ZView v.2.80 (Scribner Associates Inc.) was used to perform data analysis and equivalent circuit fitting of EIS data in Nyquist plot representation.

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