UV-vis absorptions were measured using a Varian Cary 500 spectrometer (Varian, USA). Steady-state PL was measured using an Edinburgh Instruments FLS920P fluorescence spectrometer, and for PL life time measurement [time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC)], a picosecond pulse diode laser (EPL-405; excitation wavelength, 405 nm; pulse width, 49 ps) was used.

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