XPS measurements were performed with a PHI VersaProbe II scanning XPS microprobe using a monochromatic Al Kα x-ray of 24.8-W power with a beam size of 100 μm. Core-level signals were obtained at 45° take-off angle. All peaks were calibrated using C 1s peak at 284.8 eV to correct charge shift of binding energies. Curve fitting was performed using the PHI MultiPak software. Depth profiling etching speed was calibrated using Si as standard. The top-view and cross-sectional morphologies of the films were characterized using a high-resolution scanning electron microscope (Zeiss Merlin) with an in-lens detector.

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