Spiro-OMeTAD was selected as a hole-transporting layer (HTL) material. Spiro-OMeTAD was dissolved in CB with a concentration of 70 mM, which was doped by LiTFSI and 4-tert-butyl pyridine, and the molar ratios were 33 and 330%, respectively. The mixed spiro-OMeTAD solution was spin casted on the surface of the perovskite at 4000 rpm for 30 s. The acceleration was 2000 rpm/s.

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