Nippon Sheet Glass (10 ohms/sq) was consecutively cleaned using 2% Hellmanex aqueous solution, deionized water, acetone, and ethanol by sonicating for 20 min for each solvent. After drying with compressed air, UV-ozone was applied for further cleaning. c-TiO2 was deposited on top of FTO using the spray pyrolysis method: The substrates were preheated to 450°C; a precursor solution of titanium diisopropoxide bis(acetylacetonate), 75 wt % in IPA, was diluted with dry ethanol with a volume ratio of 1:9 and with the addition of 4% volume ratio of additional acetyl acetone. After spray pyrolysis, the FTO/TiO2 substrate was allowed to heat at 450°C for 30 min before cooling down to room temperature. Mesoscopic TiO2 was applied by spin coating a diluted solution of 30 NR-D paste (mass ratio of paste:EtOH = 1:6) at 4000 rpm with an acceleration of 2000 rpm/s. The as-prepared FTO/c-TiO2/TiO2 paste was then allowed to sinter at 450°C for 1 hour, yielding FTO/c-TiO2/mesoscopic TiO2, which was then deposited with perovskite freshly.

Note: The content above has been extracted from a research article, so it may not display correctly.

Please log in to submit your questions online.
Your question will be posted on the Bio-101 website. We will send your questions to the authors of this protocol and Bio-protocol community members who are experienced with this method. you will be informed using the email address associated with your Bio-protocol account.

We use cookies on this site to enhance your user experience. By using our website, you are agreeing to allow the storage of cookies on your computer.