Nippon Sheet Glass (10 ohms/sq) was consecutively cleaned using 2% Hellmanex aqueous solution, deionized water, acetone, and ethanol by sonicating for 20 min for each solvent. After drying with compressed air, UV-ozone was applied for further cleaning. c-TiO2 was deposited on top of FTO using the spray pyrolysis method: The substrates were preheated to 450°C; a precursor solution of titanium diisopropoxide bis(acetylacetonate), 75 wt % in IPA, was diluted with dry ethanol with a volume ratio of 1:9 and with the addition of 4% volume ratio of additional acetyl acetone. After spray pyrolysis, the FTO/TiO2 substrate was allowed to heat at 450°C for 30 min before cooling down to room temperature. Mesoscopic TiO2 was applied by spin coating a diluted solution of 30 NR-D paste (mass ratio of paste:EtOH = 1:6) at 4000 rpm with an acceleration of 2000 rpm/s. The as-prepared FTO/c-TiO2/TiO2 paste was then allowed to sinter at 450°C for 1 hour, yielding FTO/c-TiO2/mesoscopic TiO2, which was then deposited with perovskite freshly.

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