Lead iodide, cesium iodide, and hydrogen iodide aqueous solutions (57%) were purchased from TCI Co. Ltd. Formamidinium iodide, methyl ammonium iodide, and spiro-OMeTAD were purchased from Dyesol. Ultradry dimethylformamide (DMF), ultradry dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and ultradry chlorobenzene (CB) were purchased from Acros, and dry IPA, 4-tert-butyl pyridine, lithium bistrifluorosulfonyl imide (LiTFSI), acetyl acetone, titanium diisopropoxide bis(acetylacetonate), 75 weight % (wt %) in IPA and borane tetrahydrofuran complex solution [1.0 M in tetrahydrofuran (THF)], were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. Pentafluorophenylacetonitrile was purchased from Fluorochem. All the chemicals were used as received without further purification. Conductive glass, FTO (10 ohms/sq), was purchased from Nippon Sheet Glass, and titanium dioxide paste (30 NR-D) was purchased from Dyesol. FEAI was synthesized according to an optimized recipe from a previously reported literature (25).

Borane tetrahydrofuran complex solution (1.0 M in THF, 5 ml) was added into a solution of pentafluorophenyl acetonitrile (300 mg, 1.45 mmol) in THF (5 ml) dropwise at 0°C under the protection of argon, and the mixed solution was allowed to reflux overnight. After reduction, the resulting amine solution was treated with hydrogen iodide aqueous solution (57%, 1 ml, 7.7 mmol) and stirred at 0°C for 1 hour. The resulting brownish solution was concentrated, and the solvent was removed under reduced pressure. The resulting brown solid was washed with diethyl ether three times to yield a white crystalline final product (420 mg, 73%).

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