For the preparation of cellulose nanopaper films, a custom-built centrifugal filtration device was used (fig. S2). It consisted of three parts: a waste compartment, a highly porous metallic plate (0.1 to 0.3 μm), and a sample loading compartment. Before use, a porous metallic substrate was fixed on top of the waste container with an additional GVWP (0.22 μm, Millipore, U.S.A) membrane placed on top. CNF solutions [1% (w/v)] were mixed and loaded in the sample containers (with O-ring), and the device was placed in a swing-out rotor. Small sheets (2 cm by 2 cm) of silk-cellulose films were made by spinning at 2000 rpm (720g) for 30 min at 25°C. To prevent defects during cutting, a metallic block with eight evenly spaced razor blades was used. A 300-g load was applied for 10 min, and then a 50-g weight was applied overnight.

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