To study shear rate dependence of the viscosity of the combined CNF and protein suspensions, a stress-controlled rheometer (AR-G2 rheometer, TA Instruments) with a stainless steel serrated plate geometry (diameter, 22 mm) and with a humidity control chamber was used. The gap distance was 1 mm, and we used a flow ramp with an initial torque of 0.06 μNm (stress, 0.001 Pa) to a final torque of 6000 μNm (stress, 100 Pa). All measurements were carried out at 23°C.

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