For 3D visualization of an LCE shell actuation, we used a NIKON A1R+ laser scanning fluorescence confocal system. The fluorescence labeling was achieved by dissolving the dichroic azo dye (DDR 536) into the LCE precursor solution. After the final UV cross-linking stage, the desired shell was transferred to a rectangular glass capillary (inner dimensions, 2 mm by 4 mm; wall thickness, 0.4 mm) filled with pure water for confocal fluorescence measurements. The dye was excited with a 514-nm laser, and the emission was collected in the spectral region of 550 to 600 nm.

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