The course of the peroneal nerve at the level of the knee was approximated by surface electrical stimulation (1 to 4 mA, 0.2 ms, 1 Hz) using a 2-mm-diameter probe connected to an optically isolated constant-current stimulator (setup 1: FE180 Stimulus Isolator, ADInstruments, Oxford, UK). For radial nerve experiments, the course of the nerve just above the elbow was visualized using ultrasound (LOGIQ e, GE Healthcare, Chicago, IL, USA). A high-impedance tungsten recording electrode was inserted percutaneously, followed by precise localization of the nerve by delivery of weak electrical pulses (0.02 to 1 mA, 0.2 ms, 1 Hz; FHC Inc., Bowdoin, ME, USA). The electrode was insulated, except for the ~5-μm bare tip, with a typical length of 20 mm for the peroneal nerve and 40 mm for the radial nerve (shaft diameter, 0.2 mm). An uninsulated subdermal electrode in an adjacent area served as the reference. A high-impedance preamplifier was taped to the skin near the recording electrode (setup 1: MLT185 headstage, ADInstruments, Oxford, UK), which was used in conjunction with a low-noise high-gain amplifier (setup 1: FE185 Neuro Amp EX, ADInstruments, Oxford, UK). Once the electrode tip was intrafascicular, indicated by the subject’s reports of cutaneous sensations to weak electrical stimulation (≤0.02 mA), the neural activity was amplified. Single LTMRs were searched for by soft brush stroking (1 to 10 cm/s), and single HTMRs were searched for by coarse brush stroking (1 to 10 cm/s) or pinching in the fascicular innervation zone while making small adjustments to the electrode position (25). A soft goat hair brush and a coarse synthetic brush with a bristle length of 30 mm each were used for soft and coarse brush stroking, respectively. A subset of experiments was performed using setup 2 in which the data were digitally sampled using SC/ZOOM developed by the Physiology Section, Department of Integrative Medical Biology, Umeå University.

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