Computational fluid dynamics
This protocol is extracted from research article:
Climbing droplets driven by mechanowetting on transverse waves
Sci Adv, Jun 14, 2019; DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw0914

The numerical modeling was conducted within the OpenFOAM 2.3.1 framework (34). To model capillary effects, we computationally solved the Navier-Stokes and continuity equations, supplemented by the two-phase volume-of-fluid formulation with the continuous surface tension force (CSF) method (15). We modified the CSF formulation by calculating the surface tension effects based on a smoothed indicator function to partially eliminate spurious currents and accurately model millimeter-sized droplets (16). The dynamic surface topography was modeled using deformation of the mesh boundary. This was done by prescribing a vertical displacement function to the boundary points of the mesh and updating the rest of the mesh points according to a diffusion method to guarantee sufficient mesh quality. The prescribed displacement function mimics the traveling wave surface topography used in the experiments by fitting the (periodic) instantaneous experimental geometry by two circular arcs. The tilting angle of the experimental setup was modeled by slowly rotating the gravitational acceleration vector during the simulations.

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