The thermal conductance of the TED (GTED) was measured by applying heating power (Q) to the TED and measuring the temperature difference between the hot and cold sides (ΔT = ThTc, where Th is the hot side temperature and Tc is the cold side temperature). GTED was calculated using GTED = d(Q)/dT). The Seebeck coefficient (S) was also measured using the same setup by additionally measuring VOC of the TED for various temperature differences. The device-level average Seebeck coefficient was calculated from the slope of VOC versus ΔT, namely, S = d(VOC)/dT). The thermal conductivity of the stretchable Ecoflex sheets (kp) was measured using the same method as that used for the GTED measurement, and the measurement was calibrated with standard polymer samples, including pristine Ecoflex (kp = 0.20 W m−1 K−1).

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