Relative levels of the mutant and WT mtDNAs were quantified using a PyroMark Q24 pyrosequencer (Qiagen) (15). Briefly, this assay was developed using PyroMark assay design software v2.0 (Qiagen). A PCR reaction was performed to amplify a 178–base pair fragment containing the C5024T mutation site using a biotinylated forward primer and a nonbiotinylated reverse primer. After adding a PyroMark binding buffer (Qiagen) and 1 μl Streptavidin Sepharose TM high-performance beads (GE Healthcare), PCR products were purified and denaturated using a Pyromark Q24 vacuum workstation (Qiagen). Sequencing was carried out with PyroMark Gold Q24 Reagents according to manufacturer’s directions, using specific gene-sequencing primers 5′Biotin TTCCACCCTAGCTATCATAAGC (forward) and GTAGGTTTAATTCCTGCCAATCT (reverse) and the sequencing primer TGTAGGATGAAGTCTTACA.

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