To characterize pristine and electro-plasmonic nanoantennas, a custom-built electro-optic measurement platform based on an inverted microscope (Nikon TE2000-U) was used (fig. S6A). Its schematic is shown in fig. S6B. Electro-optics measurements were performed using a 670-nm diode temperature-stabilized laser modulated at a frequency of 500 Hz (for synchronous detection of scattering signal using lock-in amplifier). The laser was focused onto the nanoparticles at normal incidence using 40× Nikon S Plan Fluor ELWD objective (NA = 0.6). The forward scattering light was collected using a custom collection optics with 50° to the normal using a collection optics consisting of a 20× infinity-corrected objective (NA = 0.4) with a front aperture of 3 mm, a fiber collimator, and a 600-μm multimode optical fiber patch cable. The collected light was measured using a fiber-coupled silicon photodetector (Thorlabs, PDA100A). A lock-in amplifier (Stanford Research Systems, SR850) connected to an oscilloscope (Rigol, DS4034) was used for detection. To characterize the voltage-dependent scattering response (electric-field sensitivity) of the nanoantenna, a second ITO-covered glass slide was used as the counter electrode. The separation between electrodes was set to 100 μm using a polydimethylsiloxane spacer layer. A function generator (Rigol, DG4102) was used to control the applied voltage difference (electric field) between electrodes. The voltage-dependent ac scattering signal was measured using the lock-in amplifier, while the dc component of the scattering signal was monitored using the oscilloscope.

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