The HPAA-collagen mineralized in CaP solution and the bare collagen mineralized in HPAA-CaP solution were examined with TEM, powder x-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The mechanical properties of the mineralized collagen were examined with AFM and compressive stress-strain test. The kinetics of the mineralization processes were characterized with dynamic attenuated total reflection–FTIR (Supplementary Materials and Methods).

Cellular responses of human mesenchymal stem cells (Texas A&M Health Science Center, Institute for Regenerative Medicine, College Station, TX, USA) to bare collagen sponges and HPAA-collagen sponges were evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and flow cytometry (Supplementary Materials and Methods).

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