Data were examined for Gaussian distribution using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test. Non-Gaussian–distributed data were analyzed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. Unpaired Student’s t tests were used to evaluate statistical significance. Values are expressed as means ± SEM or means ± SD, as indicated. Significance was set at the 95% confidence level and ranked as *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001.

Note: The content above has been extracted from a research article, so it may not display correctly.



Q&A
Please log in to submit your questions online.
Your question will be posted on the Bio-101 website. We will send your questions to the authors of this protocol and Bio-protocol community members who are experienced with this method. you will be informed using the email address associated with your Bio-protocol account.



We use cookies on this site to enhance your user experience. By using our website, you are agreeing to allow the storage of cookies on your computer.