Data were examined for Gaussian distribution using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test. Non-Gaussian–distributed data were analyzed using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. Unpaired Student’s t tests were used to evaluate statistical significance. Values are expressed as means ± SEM or means ± SD, as indicated. Significance was set at the 95% confidence level and ranked as *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, and ***P < 0.001.

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