iEEG recordings were performed at the Department of Epileptology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany; at the Epilepsy Centre Bethel, Bielefeld, Germany; at the Yuquan Hospital, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China; and at the First Affiliated Hospital of PLA General Hospital, Beijing, China. Our research protocol was approved by the appropriate institutional review boards at each of the four hospital sites. Written informed consent was obtained from all patients. During recordings, all patients had normal or corrected-to-normal vision.

At the recording site in Freiburg, iEEG data were acquired using a Compumedics system (Compumedics, Abbotsford, Victoria, Australia) at a sampling rate of 2000 Hz. At the recording site in Bielefeld, iEEG data were acquired using a Nihon-Kohden system at a sampling rate of 1000 or 2000 Hz. At the recording sites in Beijing, iEEG data were acquired using a Nihon-Kohden system (Yuquan Hospital) and a Blackrock NeuroPort system (First Affiliated Hospital of PLA General Hospital) at a sampling rate of 2000 Hz. Electrodes were provided by Ad-Tech (Ad-Tech, Racine, WI, USA) at the recording sites in Freiburg and Bielefeld and by HKHS Beijing Health (HKHS Beijing Health Co., Ltd., Beijing, China) at the recording sites in Beijing. Signals were referenced to Cz (Freiburg), to linked mastoids (Bielefeld), or to one electrode contact located in white matter (Beijing). Regarding the latter, candidate reference electrode contacts located in white matter were chosen by visual inspection of the post-implantation computed tomography (CT) images coregistered onto the preimplantation MR images. Then, iEEG traces from each candidate reference electrode were visually inspected, and contacts with little or no apparent EEG activity were chosen as the reference for all subsequent recordings [see (11) for a similar procedure]. In total, signals from 2417 electrode channels distributed across varied brain regions were recorded.

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