Surgery. Mice were anesthetized with 1.5% isoflurane, and the stainless steel screws (1000 μm in diameter) were implanted into the skull overlying the frontal cortex (AP, −0.5 mm; ML, −0.5 mm from the bregma). A reference stainless steel screw was implanted into the skull in the hindbrain (AP, −6 mm; ML, −0.5 mm from the bregma). Once two screws were implanted, dental cement (GC Unifast Trad; GC Co., Tokyo, Japan) and an adhesive (Super-Bond C&B, Sun Medical Co. LTD., Shiga, Japan) were applied around the shaft of the screws and over the exposed skull.

EEG recording. Following recovery from the surgery, mice were anesthetized with the same protocol as fMRI experiments. Electrodes were immediately connected to a differential AC amplifier Model 1700 (A-M Systems, Sequim, WA, USA), via a Model 1700 head stage (A-M Systems, Sequim, WA, USA). Local field potentials (LFP) were continuously recorded. EEG signals in the frontal cortex were acquired at a 10-kHz sampling rate using dedicated data acquisition software (PowerLab, ADInstruments, Dunedin, New Zealand). After the recording with 1.5% isoflurane anesthesia for 10 min, isoflurane was turned off, and the recording was continued until 10 min. The body temperature was maintained at 37°C using a heating pad (DC temperature controller; FHC Inc., Bowdoin, ME, USA). From EEG signal, the averaged power of gamma frequency band (60 to 100 Hz) during the isoflurane anesthesia and 9 to 10 min after turning off the isoflurane was calculated.

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