The KillerRed system was a gift from L. Lan (University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA). Activation of KillerRed followed the method as previously described (62). Briefly, U2OS tet response element (TRE) cells with transfection of pBROAD3/tetR-KR were pretreated without or with 0.1 μM COH34 for 1 hour before exposure to a 15-W white fluorescent bulb for 10 min (height to light is 15 cm). Following 1 or 10 min of recovery, samples were examined by immunofluorescence with anti-KillerRed antibody (Evrogen), anti-PAR monoclonal antibody (Trevigen), or anti-XRCC1 antibody (GeneTex). Images were taken from a fluorescence microscope and analyzed by ImageJ.

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