Nucleation experiments were conducted with arrays of 1-μl Milli-Q water droplets with 0.1 and 1 wt % suspended feldspar particles, obtained by grinding LD3 microcline using an agate pestle and mortar. These were carried out using the “microliter Nucleation by Immersed Particles Instrument” (μl-NIPI), as described previously by Whale et al. (39). Thirty to 50 drops were pipetted onto a 22-mm-diameter hydrophobic silanized slide placed on a cryocooler inside a Perspex cell with a gas inlet and outlet. Zero-grade nitrogen was flowed through at 300 sccm (standard cubic centimeters per minute), and the sample was cooled at a rate of 1°C min−1 from 15° to −40°C. Freezing events were identified from an optical recording by a webcam, and the corresponding freezing temperature was obtained from the temperatures recorded by the cryocooler software. A minimum of two runs of each suspension were performed. This technique was repeated for macroscopic feldspar samples, where the silanized slide was replaced by a thin section. A minimum of two thin sections of each orientation were measured in this manner. The freeze-thaw data presented in the correlation plot in Fig. 4D were collected in the same manner as for single-drop cryomicroscopy experiments but using the μl-NIPI technique to investigate an array of drops simultaneously.

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