Electric field–dependent micro-XRD study was conducted on a commercially available x-ray diffractometer with 2D detector (D8 Discover m-HR, Bruker AXS) following previous procedure (44). Point-focused x-rays were converged and monochromated by a 2D layout multilayer x-ray mirror, which reduces the angular spreads of the Cu Kα radiation to δθ = 4 × 10− 2 degrees. The x-rays were further focused by the collimator down to 100 μmφ. The sample was then mounted on an open cradle, and the diffracted x-rays were collected by a 2D detector, which has a minimum angular resolution of about 0.034° at a 150-mm sample-to-detector distance. A single-crystal CIPS capacitor with Cr/Au top and bottom electrodes was prepoled into a single-domain state. During the test, a dc electric field in the same direction as the polarization was applied to the capacitor. The lock-coupled (θ-2θ) scan around the (008) Bragg peak was then performed, with a scanning time in the range of a few tens of seconds.

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