The white light generated by the light source (ELS-250, Asahi Spectra) was filtered by a monochromator (7ISWS; spectral selection range, 330 to 1000 nm) and then focused onto the device through the glass substrate at an angle of 45°; a silicon detector (Newport 2031; 400 to 1070 nm) was used to collect the reflection light off the device. Light transmitted through the CQD layer twice when reflecting off the device. The silicon detector was connected to a lock-in amplifier (SR830, Stanford Research System). The measurement setup and calculation details are shown in section S3.

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