Absorption spectra of CQDs in toluene (1 mg/ml) were measured using an ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer (Shimadzu, UV-1800). PL spectra of CQDs in toluene (1 mg/ml) were recorded using a spectrofluorophotometer (Shimadzu, RF-5301PC; excitation wavelength, 532 nm). QY of CQDs in toluene (100 mg/ml) was measured with an integrating sphere and calculated as the ratio of absolute emission photons and absorption photons. The accuracy of the QY measurement was verified using Rhodamine 6G, and the measured QY of 94.3% in our setup was in good agreement with the standard value of 95%.

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