Images and videos were acquired at 25 frames/s using phase-contrast microscopy with a 10× objective and a digital Neo complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor camera. During the experiments, the microfluidic chip was kept on a heated microscope stage (Carl Zeiss, at 37°C). The average path velocity of the sperm (also called VAP in computer-assisted sperm analysis systems) was determined using ImageJ (version 1.51j8) and MATLAB (version R2017a) software by measuring the average distance between the center of the sperm head in each frame divided by the time elapsed.

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