SEM was carried out to observe the morphology of graphene/Cu foil and NPC/graphene as well as the thickness of the NPC film. An FEI Teneo scanning electron microscope with an operating voltage of 0.8 to 2.0 kV and a working distance of 2.5 to 7.0 mm was used. The samples were directly characterized without any conductive coating. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) imaging of the NPC film and ED of the NPC/graphene film were conducted using an FEI Tecnai G2 Spirit microscope operating with a 120-keV incident electron beam.

Raman characterization was performed on graphene/Cu using a Renishaw micro-Raman spectroscope (457 nm, 2.33 eV, 50× objective). More than 10 spectra were collected with the mapping method for each sample. The Raman data were analyzed by curve fitting in MATLAB to extract the ID/IG, ID/ID′, and I2D/IG ratios. Before analysis, the background was subtracted from the Raman spectra.

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