All mice were maintained in the Institute of Molecular Medicine semibarrier animal facility. They were housed at 21° to 22°C on a 12-hour light/dark cycle with standard pellet chow and water ad libitum—except in fasting experiments. Animal care and procedures were approved by the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC). All IACUC guidelines were followed for care and use of mice. Strains of mice used in this study have been described previously: Pdx1-cre, Vgat-cre, Vglut2-cre (22, 23, 28). Male and female mice were used in roughly equal numbers as preliminary analysis revealed no significant difference in behavior. Multiple litters were used, and mice were at least 6 weeks old before surgery.

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