Starting from the relocated earthquakes, we carried out a seismic tomographic inversion to study the three-dimensional Vp and Vs structures of the study region (fig. S5). In addition to the Gorkha earthquake sequence of 533 earthquakes, we also used data from 714 earthquakes that occurred in the study area before the Gorkha earthquake since 1990 (gray circles in Fig. 1). We used regional-scale double-difference tomography (38), which is a generalization of the DD location (35). By taking the curvature of Earth into the Cartesian volume of the grid nodes, we determined the velocity structure for larger scales. The finite-difference method is used for the determination of the travel times and ray paths. These data include 14,893 P-wave and 5831 S-wave arrival times (fig. S1A) recorded at 153 stations (Fig. 1). They form 120,407 P-wave and 22,123 S-wave differential travel times between the events. We used a layered one-dimensional model as an initial model based on velocities from local seismic network (9), regional earthquake relocation and tomography (18, 20), and discontinuities from receiver function analysis (fig. S1B) (3).

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