Two low-miscut (<0.1°) 10 mm × 10 mm × 0.5 mm STO (001) crystals (CrysTec) were prepared using the procedure described in (2). The substrates were cleaned with solvents and deionized water, then etched in a buffered hydrofluoride solution (NH4F/HF = 3:1) of pH 5 to 5.5, and annealed at 1050°C for 3 hours in flowing O2 (200 standard cubic centimeters per minute). The surface morphologies obtained following this preparation procedure are shown by the tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) images in fig. S1. The substrates shown in fig. S1 (A and B) are used for the LaO-TiO2 and TiO2-LaO deposition sequences, respectively.

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