The 4506 lines were chosen within a set of about 12,000 accessions constituting the Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA) bread wheat collection conserved at the INRA Biological Resources Center for small grain cereal. These lines were chosen according to previous results indicating strong genetic structure at both geographical and temporal levels in wheat gene pools (5). To reflect this expected genetic organization, passport data were used to select the accessions on three main criteria: their geographical origin, their status (landraces, traditional, or modern cultivars), and their registration period (for cultivars). Accessions were, as far as possible, sampled in a maximum number of different geographical unit (i.e., country and then subcountry such as regions, provinces, or states); in the same manner, within a same geographical unit, accessions were sampled according to their status and registration period to reflect potential breeding effects on genetic diversity; last, sufficient balanced sample size within geographical unit and registration period was chosen to allow further comparisons at both genotypic and phenotypic levels. Passport data per accessions are given in data file S1. The worldwide diversity panel included 4506 accessions originating from 105 different countries: 2185 accessions from 33 different European countries, 143 from 28 different regions of the Russian Federation, 534 from 29 U.S. states and 5 Canadian provinces, 946 from Asia, including 384 from 24 Chinese provinces, 316 from 14 South American countries, 207 from 20 African countries, and 169 from Oceania. Pedigrees were known for 90% of the accessions. There were 59% of winter, 38% of spring, and 3% of facultative types. Fourteen percent of these accessions (632) were landraces, 21% (965) corresponded to traditional cultivars (registered before 1960), and 51% were modern varieties (registered after 1960; data file S1). To have a better understanding of the evolution of allelic diversity through time, we separated accessions in sets that were relevant in terms of agricultural practices: landraces corresponding to the original pool of worldwide diversity, traditional cultivars registered before the Green Revolution and the global introduction of dwarf genes (1960), and modern varieties registered after 1960.

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