G. lucidum spores were purchased from a cultured farm in Changbai Mountain, Jilin Province, China. Ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (FeSO4·7H2O), ammonia (NH3·H2O), glucose, and p-phenylenediamine were purchased from Aladdin Chemistry Co. Ltd. (Shanghai, China) and used as received without further purification. PBS, DMEM, BHI culture medium, and FBS were purchased from Thermo Fisher Scientific Incorporation. MPA, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC), N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS), lysine, glutamic, arginine, and aspartic acid were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. Mucus was scratched from fresh pig stomach, and guts were purchased from a local market. F. nucleatum and C. diff culture media were provided by W.K.K.W. (Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong). Clinical stool samples from healthy volunteers and C. diff–positive patients were provided by S.H.W. (Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong). DIW with a resistance of 18.2 megohm (Smart2Pure 12, Thermo Fisher Scientific) was used throughout the experiments.

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