Before starting the MRI-tES session, patients were comfortably seated in a chair, and scalp was gently cleaned with an alcohol solution to improve skin conductivity under the corresponding electrode. An MRI-compatible brain stimulator was used for the tES session (Starstim 8 system, with a multichannel MRI kit, Neuroelectrics, Barcelona, Spain), and participants wore the device throughout the entire MRI session. Conductive rubber electrodes were inserted in circular sponge sockets with a radius of 1 cm, having the same area (3.14 cm2) as the PITRODE PISTIM used for the head model generation. The sockets were dipped into a saline solution to ensure electric conductivity. Participants were then brought into the MRI scanner, and the electrodes were connected to the MRI-compatible cables. Electrode impedance was checked before launching the first MRI sequence; this also served to ensure that participants were familiarized with the tES-induced scalp sensations (e.g., tingling) before the MRI session. Particular care was taken to minimize head motion via cushions and custom-made padding. Participants were provided with earplugs and were instructed to try to relax and not to move during the MRI acquisition time.

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