The ROIs for each patient were created on the basis of the presurgical MRI assessment (Fig. 1), independently by two investigators (G.S. and L.Mo.). Following the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology recommendations, the solid part of the tumor and the necrotic core were identified on the contrast-enhanced T1w images. One patient with MTX did not show manually identifiable necrosis inside the tumor. The edema in the tissue surrounding the tumor was segmented using FLAIR images. In the postsurgery phase, T2 Turbo Spin Echo (TSE) scans were used to correctly identify the vacuum created by the surgical intervention. ROIs were manually segmented on the corresponding anatomical scan using MRIcro software ( and 3D Slicer ( As presented in Figs. 1 to 3, ROIs were concentric, with the edema ROI usually including both solid and necrotic parts, while the solid tumor ROI included the necrotic core, reflecting what is currently done during radiotherapy planning (37). For the postsurgery stimulations, CT scans of the skull were used to map the skull defects caused by the craniotomy on the T1w images used for biophysical modeling to model the potential shunting of electrical current through the skull defects. T1w images were also used to create a ROI of the metallic clips on the scalp to optimize a tDCS solution with no electrodes close to the postsurgical scar (Fig. 3). Resulting ROIs were compared, and an agreement about the final set of masks to be used for biophysical modeling and neuroradiological analysis was reached by consensus (G.S. and L.Mo.).

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