Powder XRD results were obtained with a D8 Advance with LynxEye and SolX (Bruker, USA) using Cu Kα radiation. XPS was conducted on a high-sensitivity Kratos AXIS 165 x-ray photoelectron spectrometer using Mg Kα radiation. All binding energy values were referenced to the C 1s peak at 284.6 eV. The content of different species was obtained by fitting the whole XPS spectra using the CasaXPS software. The distributions of different elements in different depths of the cycled LPS SSEs were analyzed using a time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscope attached with a Ga+ focused ion beam (FIB)/scanning electron microscope (Tescan GAIA3). The accelerated voltage for FIB/SEM was 20 kV.

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