For the KP and DR studies, healthy control PBMC donors were recruited at the Cambridge Centre for Neuropsychiatric Research (CCNR), University of Cambridge, UK. For the TI study, first-onset antipsychotic drug-naïve male patients with SCZ before (n = 12) and the same patients after (n = 10) 6 weeks of treatment with the atypical antipsychotic medication olanzapine (10 to 20 mg/day), in addition to matched controls (n = 12), were recruited at the Department of Psychiatry, Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (table S5). For the CV study, first-onset antipsychotic drug-naïve patients with SCZ (n = 30) were recruited at the University Hospital Marqués de Valdecilla, Santander, Spain (table S10). These patients were subsequently treated with the antipsychotic medication aripiprazole (n = 12; 5 to 30 mg/day) or risperidone (n = 18; 2 to 4 mg/day). The medical faculty ethical committees responsible for the respective sample collection sites approved the study protocols. Informed consent was given in writing by all participants, and clinical investigations were conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki and Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy.

Diagnoses of neuropsychiatric pathology were conducted by experienced psychiatrists and were based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders–IV–Text Review. The severity of symptom subtypes in SCZ was measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (TI) or the SAPS and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (CV). The exclusion criteria for patients and controls included as follows: additional neuropsychiatric diagnoses other than SCZ, other neurological disorders including epilepsy, mental retardation, multiple sclerosis, immune/autoimmune disorders, infectious disease, metabolic disorders including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease, hepatic and renal insufficiency, gastrointestinal disorders, endocrine disorders including hypo-/hyperthyroidism and hypo-/hypercortisolism, respiratory diseases, cancer, severe trauma, substance abuse including psychotropic drugs and alcohol, somatic medication with brain side effects, and somatic medication affecting the immune system including glucocorticoids, anti-inflammatory/immunomodulating drugs, and antibiotics.

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