As explained above, solid temperatures were read directly on the top and lateral monolith surfaces throughout the experiment. However, to measure gas temperatures under MWH (to obtain solid-gas temperature differences), a more complex procedure had to be followed. Up to the working limit of the optical fiber (~250°C), the temperature of the gas exiting the reactor was directly measured by locating an optical fiber 1 mm downstream of the monolith. Above 250°C, the gas-phase temperature was estimated indirectly from the exit gas composition. Since, in this system, methane is only formed in the gas phase, the average gas-phase temperature could be obtained from the observed production rate of methane obtained from the analysis of the product gas. Our detailed kinetic model was able to accurately predict methane formation rates (see theoretical calculations and goodness of model predictions in the Supplementary Materials), and from this, the corresponding gas temperature could be calculated.

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