Weighted degree and ranking. The weighted degree (Wi) of a brain region or node i is defined as jAij, and the distribution of weighted degrees typically varies across subjects. Therefore, to be able to compare weighted degrees across subjects, we ranked each node within a subject such that the higher value of the node rank signifies the higher value of its weighted degree. Similar rankings were obtained for each node for the amount of global synchrony and chimera index it produced upon stimulation.

Rich club analysis. A set of core nodes was defined such that the brain network can be partitioned into two separate groups with one group consisting of highly connected hubs (core) and the other group composed of peripheral nodes with low intragroup connectivity. We used the Brain Connectivity Toolbox (55) to obtain a set of core nodes for each subject (brain network). To define a set of core regions, we used a range of thresholds (0.5 to 1.5; a lower value of this threshold allows a higher number of nodes to be classified as the core). We then identified the regions that were assigned to the core across the entire range of thresholds, and these nodes where chosen to form the core of given subject. Then, we obtained the average shortest path length to the core for each brain region i, within each subject using the following steps: (i) calculating the average of the shortest path lengths between node i and the group of core nodes (Disub=<Dijsub>j,jCore) and (ii) normalizing Disub by maximum of Disub in a subject. The shortest path length between two nodes was calculated with the Brain Connectivity Toolbox (55), and it represents the smallest path through network edges that connects those nodes.

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