Plasmids expressing wild-type EBOV GP were obtained by inserting GP complementary DNA (cDNA) from the corresponding EBOV subtype (Zaire, strain Mayinga 1976, GenBank accession number U23187.1; Sudan, strain Gulu, GenBank accession number YP_138523.1; Bundibugyo, strain Uganda 2007, GenBank accession number ACI28624.1; Ivory Coast, strain Cote d’Ivoire 1994, GenBank accession number ACI28632.1; and Reston, strain Siena 1992, GenBank accession number AAC54891.1) between the Kpn I and Xba I sites of the PCMV3 mammalian expression vector (Sino Biological Inc., Beijing, China). Plasmid expressing MARV envelope protein GP was obtained by inserting codon-optimized Make Victoria MARV GP cDNA (strain Musoke, GenBank accession number YP_001531156.1) between the Hind III and Xba I sites of the PCMV3 mammalian expression vector. Plasmids expressing the wild-type HIV-1 envelope protein were obtained by inserting HIV-1 gp160 cDNA (strain NDK) between the Kpn I and Xba I sites of the PCMV3 mammalian expression vector. The HA and NA genes were amplified from IAV strain A/WSN/33(H1N1) cDNA by polymerase chain reaction and then inserted between the Kpn I and Eco RI or Xho I sites, respectively, of the pcDNA4/TO vector (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). Other plasmids included pCMV-VSVG (Addgene), pNL 4-3 (NIH AIDS Reagent Program), and pAdvantage (Promega). The EBOV GP and influenza virus HA mutants were constructed with the Site-Directed Mutagenesis Kit (Agilent Technologies) and confirmed by sequencing (BGI, Beijing). All plasmids used for transfection were amplified using the Maxiprep Kit (Promega) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

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