Human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, HeLa cells, CEM 4 cells, and human HFF cells were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection and grown in Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium (Gibco BRL Inc., Gaithersburg, MD, USA) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (PAA Laboratories, Linz, Austria) and cultured at 37°C with 5% CO2.

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