Animal protocols were approved by the Ethical Committee of Chongqing Medical University (Chongqing, China) and the Third Military Medical University (Chongqing, China). Male GF Kunming mice were bred in the Experimental Animal Research Center at the Third Military Medical University. They were kept in flexible film gnotobiotic isolators until the start of experiments. Mice were fed autoclaved chow and water ad libitum under a 12-hour light/12-hour dark cycle (lights on at 7:30 a.m.) and constant temperature (21° to 22°C) and humidity (55 ± 5%).

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