The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of Chongqing Medical University. All participants signed a written informed consent before any procedure was carried out. In total, 63 SCZ and 69 HC subjects were recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Here, most of the patients with SCZ were treated with a single antipsychotic drug including clozapine (n = 15), risperidone (n = 14), olanzapine (n = 9), chlorpromazine (n = 5), aripiprazole (n = 3), and quetiapine (n = 3), while the remaining patients were treated with two of the above drugs in combination (n = 9) or were unmedicated (n = 5). In clinical practice, the diversity of SCZ drugs is determined by the diversity of clinical symptoms and the heterogeneity of pathological mechanisms. SCZ was diagnosed by Structured Psychiatric Interview using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) criteria by two senior psychiatrists (30). All participants did not have any physical or other mental disorders or illicit drug use, and they also had not taken any antibiotics, probiotics, or prebiotics within 1 month before sampling. Fresh stool samples were collected from each participant and immediately frozen at −80°C until analysis. Sample sizes were determined empirically on the basis of previous studies, are similar or larger than those in related published literature, and are as stated here or in each of the figure legends. To accurately reflect the clinical reality, we did not exclude outliers. Statistical analyses were performed as described below.

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