SPR was used to assay the binding affinity of cRGD peptide/cRGD-PEG-DSPE with αvβ1 protein by BIACORE T200. The experiment was performed on the research-grade CM5 sensor chip (carboxylated dextran surface) with the running buffer including HBS-EP [10 mM M Hepes (pH 7.4), 150 mM NaCl, 3 mM EDTA, and 0.005% polyoxyethylenesorbitan surfactant]. The αvβ1 protein was immobilized on the chip surface via amide linkages at pH 4.0. The analyte cRGD was diluted in HBS-EP buffer to a serial of concentrations from 0.039 to 20 μM and flowed over the αvβ1-immobilized CM5 chip to record resonance changes to assess binding affinity (Fig. 1A).

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