Whole-cell recordings were performed in voltage-clamp mode using a MultiClamp 700B amplifier (Molecular Devices). For primary culture recording, the recording chamber was continuously perfused with a bath solution [128 mM NaCl, 30 mM glucose, 5 mM KCl, 1 mM MgCl2, and 25 mM Hepes (pH 7.3)] containing 2 mM CaCl2 via a Warner (Hamden, CT) VC-6 drug delivery system. Fifty-micromolar D-AP5 (N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist; Tocris) and 20-μM bicuculline (γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor antagonist; Tocris) were applied to isolate AMPA receptor–mediated mEPSCs. Patch pipettes were pulled from borosilicate glass and had resistances of 3 to 5 megohms when filled with internal pipette solution [130 mM K-gluconate, 1 mM EGTA, 5 mM Na-phosphocreatine, 2 mM Mg-ATP, 0.3 mM Na–guanosine 5′-triphosphate, and 10 mM Hepes (pH 7.3)]. The series resistance was typically <15 megohms and was partially compensated to 60 to 80%. The membrane potential was held at −70 mV. Data were acquired using pClamp10 software (Molecular Devices), sampled at 10 kHz, and filtered at 2 kHz. Off-line data analysis of mEPSCs was performed using Clampfit software (Molecular Devices).

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