WS inorganic constituents (Na+, NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Cl, NO3, and SO42−) were measured on a Dionex Aquion ion-chromatography (IC) system (Thermo Finnigan LLC). Water extracts from each quartz fiber filter were injected into the IC operating at 1.0 ml min−1. The Dionex system contains a guard column and an anion-cation separator column with a strong basic exchange resin and a suppressor column (AERS500/CERS 500) also with strong acid ion exchange resin. The anion eluent consisted of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solutions (1 M), and the cation eluent consisted of methanesulfonic acid solution (20 mM) prepared in double-distilled water. The instrument was calibrated using commercial Merck standards (~1000 parts per million). The quality assurance of the analytical data (within 5%) was ascertained by preparing standard stock solutions from analytical grade reagents and salts. The concentrations in the aerosol sample were suitably corrected for contribution from the blank filters.

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